Her People

A record of the people connected to Anahareo, by blood or by choice.

Petitions and Government Correspondence

In the mid-1980s, Algonquins in Ontario formally submitted a land claim to the governments of Canada and Ontario, asserting that the crown never entered into a treaty with them. In 2012, a preliminary draft agreement-in-principle was released for public review and comment. If successful, the agreement will represent Ontario's first modern-day, constitutionally protected treaty.

As part of the negotiation process, in-depth research into land claims history was commissioned by various interested parties. The documents presented here were produced by Joan Holmes & Associates, an Ottawa-based research firm, and can be viewed in full on the website of the Omàmiwininì Pimàdjwowin (Algonquins of Golden Lake). Only the volumes containing references to Anahareo's ancestors are reproduced here. Although instances where they are specifically mentioned by name are highlighted in the descriptions, the full volumes are worth reading in order to truly gain a sense of the bureaucratic challenges Anahareo's ancestors faced.

1800-1829              • 1830-1842              • 1842-1849              • 1850-1867              • 1867-1897

The Nineteenth Century: 1800 - 1829

As recorded in this volume, the Grand Chief of the Nipissing in 1820 was Laurent Kisinsick and the Grand Chief of the Algonquin was Pierre Louise Constant Pinincy. However, one of the signatories to a petition dated July 29, 1827 (No. 117, p. 56-57) was a Michel Paysindawa -- possibly Pesinwatch -- who could be the father of Anahareo's maternal grandmother, Angelique Ockiping, and who would have been approximately 33 years old at the time. The first mention of Anahareo's paternal Great-Grandfather, François Kaondinaketch Papineau, appears to come on August 24, 1828 (No. 126, p. 62), when he undertook an unspecified "special mission" at the age of approximately 22 years. VIEW DOCUMENT.

The Nineteenth Century: 1830 - 1842

In this volume, Anahareo's great-grandfather, François Kaondinaketch Papineau, is presented with a medal by the Superintendent of the Indian Department, Lieutenant Colonel Mackay (No. 141, p. 71-72), the significance of which is unknown. Papineau (as Fill PaPino) is next listed as a signatory to a petition dated July 1833 (No. 146, p. 73-74), when he is identified as a Chief of the Nipissing. Notably, the signatories of this petition also include a Michel Besinoawatch, possibly Pesinwatch, a maternal great-grandfather of Anahareo's.

By June 1835 (No. 153, p. 77-78), Papineau (under the name François Ka-on-timKetch) is at the top of the list of signatories for the Nipissing. In August 1836 (No. 160, p. 81), at approximately 30 years of age, Papineau is formally identified as Grand Chief of the Nipissing. He is further specifically mentioned in documents dated February 1837 (No. 162, p. 82-83), August 1838 (No. 166, p. 86-87), and September 1838 (No. 168, p. 88-90). On September 4, 1841, Papineau (identified as Grand Chief Ka-on-di-no-ketch) addresses Superintendent James Hughes on behalf of the Nipissing and Algonquin at a council meeting to discuss matters raised in a petition dated March 1840 (No. 178, p 98-99); the text of his speech is reproduced in the volume. VIEW DOCUMENT.

The Nineteenth Century: 1842 - 1849

This volume begins with a speech by Anahareo's great-grandfather, François Kaondinaketch Papineau, given in July 1842 on behalf of the Algonquin and Nipissing (No. 180, p. 100-101). Papineau is again mentioned as being present at a council held in October of 1843 (No. 188, p 103-105), where it is recorded that he was called upon to represent his fellow Chiefs in this exchange due to his command of the French language. Later, in August 1847 (No. 206, p. 119-124), Papineau signs a lengthy petition describing their traditional hunting grounds and the history of their dispossession. VIEW DOCUMENT.

The Nineteenth Century: 1850-1867

On February 9, 1851 -- five days after his daughter Catherine's marriage to John Bernard Nelson -- Anahareo's great-grandfather, François Kaondinaketch Papineau, signed a lengthy petition to the House of Commons outlining the history of the Algonquins and Nipissing since the time of first contact (No. 223, p. 135-138). This is the last mention of Papineau in these documents, and he is believed to have passed away a few short years later.

In November 1857, there is mention of a Michl Pizwanatch, likely Michel Pesinwatch, one of Anahareo's great-grandfathers on her mother's side, residing at Golden Lake (No. 236, p. 145); at the time, he would have been approximately 63 years old . Pesinwatch is mentioned again in a letter to the Chief Superintendent of Indian Affairs in May 1858 (No. 238, p. 147-148), where it is noted that he is a Chief and that his father was given a medal from King George III, and in two letters to the Commissioner of Crown Lands dated January 1861 (No. 243 & 244, p. 149-150). In March 1862, Pesinwatch is among the signatories to a petition to the Governor General (No. 245, p. 150-151). In July 1862 (No. 246, p. 151), Pesinwatch is once again mentioned in a letter, where it is stated that he has four sons and two daughters -- one of whom is Anahareo's grandmother, Angelique.  After several other exchanges in which he is mentioned, Pesinwatch is granted the lot he claims in August 1866 (No. 254, p. 155-156), albeit at nearly twice the price recommended in 1864. VIEW DOCUMENT.

Confederation: 1867-1897

Shortly after Confederation, in 1868, the Grand Chief of the Algonquin and Nipissing is identified as Pon Sogmogneche (Somugniche). Direct mention of Anahareo's ancestors to not appear in this volume. However, of relevance to her story is an entry from 1888 (No. 288, p. 170), in which an ultimately unresolved request is made by the Algonquin for land in Haliburton, Hastings, or near a market town such as Maynooth. A number of Anahareo's family members, including her Aunt Mary Ann and Uncle Ignace, were born in that county, and the Bernard family lived there for about twenty years, before relocating to Mattawa in the late 19th century. VIEW DOCUMENT.